Clinical biochemistry studies the chemicals in blood, urine and other body fluids. The results of these measurements are useful for detecting health problems, determining prognosis and guiding a patient’s therapy.

The most common biochemistry tests are:

  • Glucose Metabolism: Blood sugar (Glucose), Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)
  • Lipid Metabolism: Total Cholesterol (CHOL), Triglycerides (Trig), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Risk Factor, Lipoprotein-α (Lp-a)
  • Liver Function: Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/SGOT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (γ-GT), Bilirubin (Total-TBIL) / Direct / Indirect
  • Kidney Function: Urea, Creatinine, Uric Acid, Phosphorus (P), Calcium (Ca), Electrolytes [Potassium (Κ), Sodium (Νa), Chloride (Cl)]
  • Anaemia: Iron (Fe), Total Iron-Binding Capacity (TIBC), Folic acid, Vitamin Β12
  • Inflammation Markers: Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate(ESR), C-reactive Protein (CRP), Complement C3 & C4, D- Dimers, Fibrinogen
  • Electrolytes: [Potassium (Κ), Sodium (Νa)] Chloride (Cl)]

Hormone Testing

Hormone testing is often necessary, in order to identify the cause of different conditions related to, for example, development, infertility, menopause, polycystic ovarian syndrome, certain types of tumours, etc. Hormones are substances produced by endocrine glands, which carry chemical signals to organs and tissues of the body and can directly or indirectly affect the normal functioning of the human body.

The most common hormones tested are:

  • Thyroid Function: Free Triiodothyronine (FΤ3), Free Thyroxine (FT4), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Thyroglobulin (TG), Calcitonin (CT), Anti-thyroid Peroxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO), Antithyroglobulin antibodies (Anti-TG), Thyroid receptor antibodies or Thyroid Stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI)
  • Diabetes Management: Insulin (INS), Insulin Resistance, Insulin autoantibodies (IAA), C-Peptide, Leptin
  • Adrenal Gland Function: Serum Cortisol, Aldosterone, Serum Metanephrines, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S), 17-OH Progesterone (17-OH PG)
  • Pituitary Gland Function: Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PRL), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Growth hormone(GH)
  • Osteoporosis Management: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Vitamin D (25-OH), Osteocalcin (BGP), Parathormone (PTH), Procollagen (P1NP), Crosslaps (CTx)
  • Fertility: Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Oestradiol (E2), Human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), Prolactin (PRL), Progesterone, Testosterone (Total and Free), Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH)